2021

RSF North America Native Perennial List

Actaea, Racemosa White A large, bush-like plant, 3-6 ft. tall, with compound, toothed leaves and long candles of tiny, white, fuzzy flowers.  3-6′ tall, part to full shade
Allim cernuum Soft, grass-like leaves and a 1-2 ft., leafless flowering stalk rise from a bulb. The stem bends so that the pink flowers, borne in a cluster at the top, nod toward the ground. An umbel of many pink or white flowers at the tip of a long, erect, leafless stalk, bent like a shepherd’s crook; a basal cluster of several long, narrow leaves. All parts of the perennial have a mild, oniony scent. 1-3′ tall and wide,  full sun
Amorpha canescens Lead Plant is topped by spike-like masses of tiny purple blossoms. Each flower has a single 1/4″-long petal curling around 10 orange-tipped stamens. 3′ tall and wide, full to part sun
Amorpha nana Has bright green leaves compared to the silvery green leaves of the Lead Plant. Showy grape purple flowers piled densely atop one another have a single petal and bright red stamen 24″ tall, full sun
Amsonia hubrichtii Deep green thread-leaf feathery foliage waits until Fall to strut its stuff, turning bright rich yellow. Intersperse Amsonia Hubrichtii in your border to provide texture and color all through the growing season. It is best when massed. 2-3′ tall and wide full sun
Aruncus dioicus Bride’s-feathers or goat’ beard is an imposing perennial, 3-5 ft tall. The stems bear several twice- or thrice-pinnately compound leaves, the segments prominently toothed. The large, feathery clusters of small, white flowers are reminiscent of astilbes. 3-6′ tall, sun to part shade
Asclepias incarnata The large, bright, terminal blossoms of this showy perennial are made up of small, rose-purple flowers. Deep pink flowers clustered at the top of a tall, branching stem, bearing numerous narrow, lanceolate leaves. Opposite, lance-shaped leaves line the erect, open-branched stem. Elongated, tan to brown seed pods persist into winter. 2-5′ tall,  sun to part shade
Asclepias speciosa A stout, sparingly branched, pubescent perennial, with large, oval, blue-green leaves and showy, spherical clusters of rose colored flowers. Flowers occur at the top of the stem and on stalks from leaf axils. A grayish, velvety plant with erect leafy stems and with umbels of star-like pinkish flowers in upper axils and at top. Sap milky. 1-3′ tall, full sun
Asclepias tuberosa Prized for its large, flat-topped clusters of bright-orange flowers. The leaves are mostly alternate, 1 1/2-2 1/4″ long, pointed, and smooth on the edge. The yellow-orange to bright orange flower clusters, 2-5″ across, are at the top of the flowering stem. 1-2′ tall and wide, full sun
Aster divaricatus The showiest of the shade-loving Asters! White Woodland Aster bears clusters of bright white flowers in late summer, brightening up the late season woodland scene. 2-4′ tall, part to full shade
Baptisia australis Violet Dusk? Lavender violet flowers with cream keels makes this a stunning display for the early season garden. Its claim to fame is its unique vase-like habit. 36-42″ tall and wide, full sun to part shade
Callirhoe involucrata  Purple  oppy Mallow masses of chalice shaped magenta flowers on trailing, deeply lobed foliage. Excellent as a rock garden plant or ground cover, each plant can spread up to three feet in width. 6-12″ tall, full sun
Convallaria majalis Lily of the Valley Convallaria majalis is a perennial herbaceous rhizomatous plant that grows up to 12 in (30 cm) tall. It is native to Asia and Europe. Some sources list it as nonnative to North America and others list it as native. 12″ tall,  full sun to part shade
Echinacea purpurea Coneflower A popular perennial with smooth stems and long-lasting, lavender flowers. Rough, scattered leaves that become small toward the top of the stem. Flowers occur singly atop the stems and have domed, purplish-brown, spiny centers and drooping, lavender rays. 2-5′ tall, sun to part shade
Eryngium Yuccifolium Scattered along the stiff, upright stem of this unusual perennial are tough, blue-green, yucca-like, parallel-veined leaves. Smooth, rigid stem bearing thistle-like flower heads made up of small greenish-white florets mingled with pointed bracts. The individual, greenish-white flowers cluster into unique, globular heads. 3-6′ tall, full sun
Eupatorium coelestinum Joe Pye Weed Mistflower grows to 3 feet high, but often lower, with leaves opposite, somewhat triangular in shape, and bluntly toothed. At the top of the plant the branches, with their short-stemmed clusters of flowers, form an almost flat top. Disk flowers are bright blue or violet, about 1/4 inch long. 1-3′ tall and wide,  full sun to part shade
Eupatorium hyssopifolium Joe Pye Weed Hyssop-leaf Boneset is a member of the family Asteraceae, which includes herbs, sometimes shrubs or vines, rarely trees, with simple or compound, alternate or opposite leaves. Flowers small, but organized into larger heads resembling a single, radially symmetrical flower cupped by a ring of green bracts. 1-3′ tall and wide, full sun to part shade
Fern Adiantumpedatum Maidenhair Fern Northern maidenhair’s delicate, fronds with dark, shiny stems, spread their pinnae horizontally in a nearly perfect circle. This graceful, fan-like pattern is unique among native ferns. The fronds arise from a creeping rootstock in clusters. Burgundy red fiddleheads appear in early spring. 1-3′ tall and wide, part shade to full shade
Fern Asplenium scolopendrium Hart’s Tongue Fern Asplenium scolopendrium, commonly called hart’s tongue fern, is a rhizomatous, evergreen fern that typically produces an erect-arching clump of tongue-shaped, leathery, bright green fronds which may have wavy margins. 1-2′ tall and wide, part shade to full shade
Fern Dryopteris affinis Cristata the King Cristata the King’ is the “king” of the many Dryopteris affinis cultivars. The species is a distinguished wintergreen with a highly ornamental flourish of spring fronds garnished with shaggy golden scales. 3-5′ tall and wide, part shade to full shade
Fern Matteuccia struthiopteris Ostrich Fern Matteuccia struthiopteris, commonly called ostrich fern, is a clump-forming, upright to arching, rhizomatous, deciduous fern which typically grows 2-3′ tall in cultivation, but may reach 6′ tall in moist, cool climates in the wild. 3-6′ tall and wide, part shade to shade
Fern Osmunda regalis  Royal Fern The fronds are cut twice into large rounded leaflets, resulting in foliage that resembles that of the pea family. Delicate, bright green fronds, often with a silvery cast, are crowned with golden, fruiting pinnae on wine-colored petioles. Fronds are 2- 5 ft. in height and often 18″ in width. 3-6′ tall and wide, part shade to shade
Fern Osmundastrum cinnamon Cinnamon Fern Osmundastrum cinnamomeum, commonly called cinnamon fern, grows in moist, boggy ground along streams and on shaded ledges and bluffs. 2-3′ tall and wide, part shade to shade
Fern Polystichum acrostich Christmas Fern Chistmas fern got its name because it stays green right through the holiday season. It is a robust, leathery fern which has glossy, green fronds year-round. 1-3′ tall and wide, part shade to shade
Geum triflorum Prairie Smoke The silky, flowing styles of the fruiting stage of Prairie Smoke never fail to win admirers at first sight. When setting seed, large stands of the plant create a gauzy effect that resembles smoke hovering close to the ground. Blooming in spring to early summer, Prairie Smoke will spread slowly from its roots in well-drained, dry to wet-mesic soils. 8″ tall, full to part sun
Grass Chasmanthium latifolium Northern Sea Oats Attractive, bamboo-like foliage and dangling, flat flower spikes create a showy accent around water features. Foliage turns coppery in fall, brown in winter. 2-3′ tall and wide, part shade to part sun
Grass Muhlenbergia capillaris Pink Muhly Grass is sought after for its spectacular pink plume color, drought tolerance and undemanding nature. Pink Muhly Grass grows in a mound with erect, blue-green foliage until September when spectacular, billowing pink seed heads form a cotton-candy crown. 3-4′ tall, full sun
Grass Sporobolus heterolepis Considered to be one of our most ornamental native species. It has graceful, fine-textured foliage with see-through fall seed heads. An excellent performer in a wide range of conditions. 24-36″ tall and wide, full sun
Liatris microcephala Liatris microcephala, known by the common names smallhead blazing star and smallhead gayfeather, is a species of flowering plant in the aster family. Small star-shaped purple flowers. 18-24″ tall, full sun
Lupine perennis Showy, elongate clusters of purple, pea-like flowers top the 1-2 ft. stems of this perennial lupine. Blue, pea-like flowers are in an upright, elongated, terminal cluster on an erect stem with palmately compound leaves. Its leaves are palmately divided into 7-11 leaflets. 10-18″ tall, full to part sun
Monarda Bradburiana Eastern Bee Balm A member of the Lamiaceae, or mint family, this wonderful perennial makes a strong color statement in the garden with its pink-to-white flowers that often have purple flecks. 12-24″ tall and wide, full sun to part shade
Monarda punctata An aromatic, erect perennial with rosettes of yellowish, purplespotted, tubular flowers occuring in whorls, forming a dense, elongated spike at the end of the stem or from leaf axils. Each whorl is subtended by large, conspicuous, whitish, purpletinged, leaf-like bracts. 6-36″ tall and wide, full sun
Oenothera missouriensis Canary yellow, mildly fragrant, 3 inch wide flowers are produced in great numbers over dark green, lanceolate leaves from early thru midsummer. 9-12″ tall, full sun to part shade
Rudbeckia Maxima Tall and bold. Huge basal leaves of powder blue with giant stalks rise straight up bearing deep golden coneflowers. The central cones of Rudbeckia Maxima are 5-7′ tall, full sun
Scutellaria incana Hoary Skullcap A bushy rhizomatous perennial with square green or purplish stems. The stems, undersides of leaves and florets have a fine whitish pubescence that is downy but not sticky or glandular. 2-3′ tall and wide, part shade/dappled sun
Spigelia marilandica Woodland pinkroot or indian pink is an, erect, clump-forming perennial, 1-2 ft. tall, with 4-7 pairs of lance-shaped leaves along a wiry stem. Leaves are opposite, 1-4 inches long, tapering to a point. Each stem bears a terminal, one-sided spike of deep-red to scarlet, tubular flowers – each ending in five yellow lobes. 1-3′ tall, part shade
Thermopsis villosa Carolina Lupine A 3-5 ft. perennial, unbranched or with a few, short, vegetative branches. Dense, terminal racemes, up to a foot long, bear many deep yellow flowers followed by hairy pods. The dark green leaves are trifoliate. 3-5′ tall, sun to part shade
Vine Lonicera ‘Major Wheeler’ Honeysuckle vine Major Wheeler Honeysuckle is a non-stop bloomer coloring the garden from late spring through the summer. Considered to be the longest blooming variety and a superior flower for the hummingbirds. 6-8′ tall, full sun
Woodland Arisaema triphyllum  Jack in the Pulpit One to two large, glossy leaves, divided into three leaflets, rise on their own stems 1-3 ft. Its large, cylindrical, hooded flowers bloom on sepearte stalks, green in color with brown stripes. Distinctive Jack-in-the-pulpit formation grows beneath large leaves. In late summer, a cluster of bright red berries appears. 24-36″ tall,  part shade to dappled sunlight
Woodland Cypripedium acaule Pink Lady Slipper Lady’s Slipper Orchid, Cypripedium acaule, is one of the best known of all the hardy orchids. Its large (2-3″) pink, mocassin shaped flowers resembling a swollen egg. The pouches are pink with raspberry colored veins, and an opening through which pollinating insects travel. 4-10″ tall, part shade to dappled sunlight
Woodland Hepatica acuta Liverwort Hepatica is a genus in the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae) native to the Northern Hemisphere. This spring-blooming herbaceous perennial also goes by the common names liverleaf or liverwort. 12″ tall, part sun to part shade
Woodland Iris cristata Crested Iris Dwarf Crested Iris is a native species of Iris that grows in North Carolina. It offers an early perennial spring bloom in partly shady areas and grows well in rock gardens and woodland sites. 4-9″ tall,  part sun to part shade
Woodland Mertensia virginica Virginia Blue Bells The distinctive blue-pink flowers of Virginia Bluebells appear soon after snow melts. True harbinger of spring. Long-lived, the plant expands slowly to form beautiful clumps that return year after year. Early season pollinators appreciate the blooms. 12-24″ tall,  part to full shade
Woodland Podophyllum Mayapple Mayapple is unique in that It has only 2 leaves and 1 flower, which grows in the axil of the leaves. The large, twin, umbrellalike leaves of mayapple are showy and conspicuous. Solitary, nodding, white to rose-colored flower grows in the axil of the leaves. 12-18″ tall and wide, part shade to shade
Woodland stylophorum diphyllum Golden Poppy Wood Poppy is a handsome perennial with bluish-green lobed leaves. The plant forms 18″ clumps. From March to May, clusters of bright yellow, 2-inch buttercup-like flowers appear and are followed by nodding green hairy pods. 18″ tall, part sun to full shade
Woodland Trillium catesbaei  Pink Nodding An easy to grow Trillium bulb with a famous name. The rosy pink flowers nod beneath the leaves. 8-12″ tall, part sun to full shade
Woodland Trillium erectum purple Purple Trillium is a perennial wildflower with deep red, threepetaled flowers growing above three large green whorled leaves. 6-20″ tall, part sun to full shade
Woodland Trillium grandiflorum white Also known as white wake-robin, snow trillium, trinity flower, or large-flowered trillium, it is easily recognizable by its waxy white flower with three petals and three sepals, blooming atop a single stalk arising from a whorl of three deep green leaves. As the plant ages, the white, wavy-edged flowers will often fade to pale rose. 14-20″ tall, part sun to full shade
Zizia aurea  ‘Golden Alexander’ Easy to grow and, although short-lived, will self-seed and persist in many sun/soil situations. Zizia is an important plant to a number of short-tongued insects that are able to easily reach the nectar in the small yellow flowers. They have a long bloom time, giving the garden some early color for several weeks in late spring to early summer. 24-36″ tall and wide, full sun to part shade